A / T / S Drug Information
A / T / S category:
A / T / S companies and manufacturers:
A / T / S forms, composition and dosages:
- Solution; Topical; Erythromycin
Indications, usages and classification codes:
- J01FA01 - Erythromycin
- S01AA17 - Erythromycin
There is an additional general information about this medication active ingredient erythromycin:
Pharmacological actionMacrolide antibiotic. Has bacteriostatic action. However at higher doses against susceptible organisms has a bactericidal effect. erythromycin is reversibly bound to the ribosome of bacteria, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. It is active against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp. (strains producing and not producing penicillinase), Streptococcus spp. (including Streptococcus pneumoniae); gram-negative bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, Brucella spp., Legionella spp., Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae; anaerobic bacteria: Clostridium spp. erythromycin is also active against Mycoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp., Spirochaetaceae, Rickettsia spp. To erythromycin resistant gram-negative bacilli, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp.
PharmacokineticsBioavailability is 30-65%. Distributed in most tissues and body fluids. Plasma protein binding is 70-90%. Metabolised in the liver, partly with the formation of inactive metabolites. T1/2 is 1.4-2 hours. It is derived from bile and urine.
Why is A / T / S prescribed?Infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to erythromycin, including diphtheria, pertussis, trachoma, brucellosis, a disease Legionnaires, sore throat, scarlet fever, otitis media, sinusitis, cholecystitis, pneumonia, gonorrhea, syphilis. Treatment of infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by pathogens (eg staphylococci) are resistant to penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin.
For external use: acne vulgaris.
For local use: the infectious-inflammatory diseases of eyes.
Dosage and administrationPrescribed individually depending on the location and severity of infection, the sensitivity of the parasite. In adults use a daily dose of 1-4 g. Children under the age of 3 months - 20-40 mg / kg / day, aged from 4 months to 18 years - 30-50 mg / kg / day. Multiplicity is 4 times / day. The treatment course - 5-14 days after the disappearance of symptoms treatment should be continued for a further 2 days. Accepts up to 1 hour before eating or 2-3 hours after eating.
Solution for external applications lubricate the affected skin.
The ointment is applied to the affected area and in diseases of the eye lay behind the lower eyelid. The dose, frequency and duration of application is determined individually.
A / T / S side effectsDigestive system: nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, cholestatic jaundice, tenesmus, diarrhea, dysbacteriosis; rarely - pseudomembranous enterocolitis, abnormal liver function, increase in liver transaminases, pancreatitis.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, urticaria, eosinophilia, rarely - anaphylactic shock.
Effects due to the influence of chemotherapy: oral candidiasis, vaginal candidiasis.
From the senses: the reversible ototoxicity - hearing loss and / or tinnitus (in the application of high doses - more than 4 g / day).
Since the cardiovascular system: rarely - tachycardia, prolongation of the QT interval on ECG, flickering and / or atrial flutter (patients with long QT interval on the ECG).
Local reactions: phlebitis at the site of / in the introduction.
ContraindicationsJaundice in history, marked disturbances of liver function, hypersensitivity to macrolides.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeedingerythromycin crosses the placental barrier, excreted in breast milk.
In the application of erythromycin in pregnancy should assess the intended benefits to the mother and the potential risk to the fetus. If necessary, use during lactation should decide on the termination of breastfeeding.
Special instructionsWith careful use when disorders of liver function and / or kidneys. Medications that increase the acidity of gastric juice and acidic drinks inactivate erythromycin. erythromycin can not drink milk and dairy products.
Precautionary measuresThe use of erythromycin containing benzene for IV injection sometimes accompanied by the development of a fatal syndrome Gaspinga in children, as well as acute hepatitis drug in adults and children.
A / T / S drug interactionsWith simultaneous use of erythromycin with theophylline, aminophylline, caffeine, there is an increase in their concentration in blood plasma and thus increases the risk of toxic effects.
erythromycin increases the concentrations of cyclosporine in the blood plasma and may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity.
Drugs that block tubular secretion prolongs T1/2 of erythromycin.
Incompatible with lincomycin, clindamycin and chloramphenicol (antagonism).
erythromycin reduces the bactericidal action of beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems).
With simultaneous use of erythromycin increases the concentration of theophylline.
At the same time receiving chemotherapy, which is carried metabolism in the liver (carbamazepine, valproic acid, hexobarbital, phenytoin, alfentanil, dizopiramid, lovastatin, bromocriptine), may increase the concentration of these drugs in plasma (an inhibitor of microsomal liver enzymes).
IV injection of erythromycin increases the effects of ethanol (accelerating gastric emptying and decrease the duration of alcohol dehydrogenase in the gastric mucosa).
erythromycin reduces the clearance of triazolam and midazolam and therefore may increase the pharmacological effects of benzodiazepines.
At the same time taking with terfenadine or astemizole may develop arrhythmias (fibrillation and ventricular flutter, ventricular tachycardia, until death); with dihydroergotamine or non hydrated ergot alkaloids may vasoconstriction to spasm, dysesthesia.
With simultaneous application this medicine slows elimination (increases the effect) of methylprednisolone, felodipine and anticoagulants of cumarine series.
In a joint appointment with lovastatin increased rhabdomyolysis.
erythromycin increases the bioavailability of digoxin.
erythromycin reduces the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives.
A / T / S in case of emergency / overdoseSymptoms: disruption of the liver until the acute liver failure, and hearing loss.
Treatment: gastric lavage, forced diuresis, hemo-and peritoneal dialysis. Produced a constant monitoring of vital functions (ECG, electrolyte composition of blood).
PLEASE, BE CAREFUL!
Be sure to consult your doctor before taking any medication!
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